The Correlation Between Extracurricular Activities, G.p.a.and Self-esteem
Sponsored by Missouri Western State University Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-97-51113
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The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:
GRAFFORD, D. (1998). The Correlation Between Extracurricular Activities, G.p.a.and Self-esteem. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 1. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved August 24, 2017 .

The Correlation Between Extracurricular Activities, G.p.a.and Self-esteem
DIANA GRAFFORD
Missouri Western State University Department of Psychology

Sponsored by: Brian Cronk (cronk@missouriwestern.edu)
ABSTRACT
A wide body of research ahs examined how extracurricular activities effect self-esteem, and how self-esteem effects G.P.A. the previous researchers presented individuals with a self-esteem scale, scored the scale, and then used that data to compare to their involvement in sports, and they also used self-esteem scales to determine that a high sense of self-esteem correlates strongly to a high G.P.A.. This study investigates the psychological effect of involvement in extracurricular activities on the level of self-esteem. The second variable I will be observing is the effect of high self-esteem on G.P.A. I expect to find that there is a positive significance between extracurricular and self-esteem. I further expect to find a positive significance between self-esteem and G.P.A.

INTRODUCTION
Self -Esteem is the way one feels about oneself, including the degree to which one possesses self-respect and self-concept. "Self-esteem is the sense of personal worth and competence that persona associate with their self-concepts" (Corsini, 1984). Self-esteem is the liking one`s self, a feeling of importance to others, and knowing their capabilities and shortcomings. William Glasser (1965), states that people develop a "success" identity versus a "failure" identity, depending on their view of their self-concept. "Self-esteem is a multidimensional concept, as it exists in degrees. It is a vitally important component of one`s self-concept" (Corsini, 1984).

Self-esteem is effected by one`s performance on the stage, on the football field, or while playing a musical instrument. A person`s confidence in their ability to compete, perform, and satisfactorily complete a task can have a positive or negative effect, depending on the interpretation of success. Self-confident individuals, "can explain their sureness of purpose, their drive, and their ability to succeed despite obstacles" (Oldham, 23). Maureen Weiss, PhD, (1996), states, "Physical activity and sports have tremendous potential to enhance children`s self-esteem and motivation". Ronald M. Jeziorski, (1994), an educational psychologist from Santa Clara, Calif, states "Participants in sports earn better grades, behave better in the classroom, have fewer behavioral problems outside the

The Correlation Between 4

classroom, drop out significantly less, and attend school on a regular basis with fewer…absences. On an academic level, students rate their success in college by their total G.P.A. score for the classes they have attended. Okun and Fournet, (1993), from Arizona State University, conducted a study involving 281 undergraduates and administered a multiple regression analysis to the data they collected. They found semester G.P.A. and academic self-esteem exerted a joint effect on perceived validity of grades scores.

I expect to further substantiate the findings in the previously acquired data. I feel

there will be a significant correlation between extracurricular activities and high sense of self-esteem, and a significant correlation between self-esteem and G.P.A..


INTRODUCTION

Self -Esteem is the way one feels about oneself, including the degree to which one possesses self-respect and self-concept. "Self-esteem is the sense of personal worth and competence that persons associate with their self-concepts" (Corsini, 1984). Self-esteem is the liking one`s self, a feeling of importance to others, and knowing their capabilities and shortcomings. William Glasser (1965), states that people develop a "success" identity versus a "failure" identity, depending on their view of their self-concept. "Self-esteem is a multidimensional concept, as it exists in degrees. It is a vitally important component of one`s self-concept" (Corsini, 1984).

Self-esteem is effected by one`s performance on the stage, on the football field, or while playing a musical instrument. A person`s confidence in their ability to compete, perform, and satisfactorily complete a task can have a positive or negative effect, depending on the interpretation of success. Self-confident individuals, "can explain their sureness of purpose, their drive, and their ability to succeed despite obstacles" (Oldham, 23). Maureen Weiss, PhD, (1996), states, "Physical activity and sports have tremendous potential to enhance children`s self-esteem and motivation". Ronald M. Jeziorski, (1994), an educational psychologist from Santa Clara, Calif, states "Participants in sports earn better grades, behave better in the classroom, have fewer behavioral problems outside the

The Correlation Between 4

classroom, drop out significantly less, and attend school on a regular basis with fewer…absences. On an academic level, students rate their success in college by their total G.P.A. score for the classes they have attended. Okun and Fournet, (1993), from Arizona State University, conducted a study involving 281 undergraduates and administered a multiple regression analysis to the data they collected. They found semester G.P.A. and academic self-esteem exerted a joint effect on perceived validity of grades scores.

I expect to further substantiate the findings in the previously acquired data. I feel

there will be a significant correlation between extracurricular activities and high sense of self-esteem, and a significant correlation between self-esteem and G.P.A..


METHOD

PARTICIPANTS
The participants in my survey consisted of thirty four college students attending Missouri Western State College. Twenty four of the subjects were currently enrolled in the Psychology class, Motivation and Emotion, twenty were between the age of eighteen and twenty four, two were between the age of twenty five and thirty, one was between the age of thirty and forty, and one was at the age of forty plus. . There were five Freshmen, one Sophomore, ten Juniors, and eight Seniors. The average Grade Point average was 3.0 to 3.9. Eleven subjects participated in extracurricular activities, while thirteen subjects did not. The additional ten subjects, were selected at random from the campus of Missouri Western State College. Six were between the age of eighteen and twenty four, three were between the age of twenty five and thirty, no one was between the age of thirty and forty, and one subject was forty plus. There were no Freshman, one Sophomore, three Juniors, and six Seniors. The average G.P.A. was 3.0 to 3.9.

APPARATUS/MATERIALS
I used the Rosenberg`s (1965) Self Esteem scale. I included three additional questions on the survey concerning extracurricular activities, and G.P.A.: I participate in extracurricular activities. (i.e. sports, music, debate team, etc.) My grade level, and My G.P.A..

PROCEDURE
The thirty-four subjects were given the Rosenberg`s (1965) self-esteem scale, with the additional three questions. I collected and scored the survey using one for lowest self -esteem answer and four being the highest. I then entered all the data into the SPSS program on the computer in the Psy lab. I ran a T-Test, an Independent Samples Test, on Extracurricular activities effects on G.P.A. I ran two Oneway Anovas, one was the effect of Self-esteem on G.P.A., the other was the effect of year in college and Self-esteem. I ran a Pearson correlation between the score of self-esteem and age. I then ran an anova between groups and within subjects design.


RESULTS

The Independent Samples T-Test that was conducted, showed no significant relationship between extracurricular activities and G.P.A. The results were (t(32) = 1.27, p >7.05). The between group and within group anova resulted in (F(2.31) = .005, p > .05). The pearson correlation revealed (r(33) = -.053, p > .05. The oneway anova produced these results, (F(3,30) = .351, p>.05). All of these tests showed no significant correlation between extracurricular activities and self esteem, or any correlation between self-esteem and G.P.A..


DISCUSSION

I was very disappointed with this survey and the data that was collected, there was no significant correlation between self-esteem, G.P.A., and extracurricular activities.I found that in all the test performed on the data I acquired, the Independent samples T-test, the between group and within group Anova, and the one-way Anova. The Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem scale revealed the subjects self-esteem level very well, but I found no correlation, and I feel that my findings were due to extraneous variables

which I did not allow for. I mainly used upper classmen majoring in psychology, where these subjects have been conditioned to take surveys and know how to answer them to fulfill the researcher`s expectations.

M. Weiss`s (1966) research dealt mainly with children, eighth through twelfth grade, and her findings showed a definite correlation between sports and self-esteem. My subjects were mainly eighteen to twenty four years of age and had developed their self- concept prior to entering college. Okun and Fournet`s,(1993), study used undergraduates, but they inserted questions to allow for the extraneous variables, low G.P.A., grade level, major, etc.. If I were to conduct another survey using these variables, I would select a more diverse subject population, freshmen, seniors, art majors, music majors, math majors, and subjects with a different G.P.A.s.


REFERENCES

Corsini, R.L. 1984. Self-Esteem. The Encyclopedia of Psychology, volume 1, 289-290.

Okun, M.A.; Fournet, L. M. 1993. Academic self-esteem and perceived validity of grades: A test of self-verification theory. Contemporary-Educational-Psychology, Vol. 18, 414-426.

Glasser, W. M. 1965. Learning to succeed through a higher self-concept. Reality Therapy, Harper and Row, 9-10.

Jeziorski, R.M. 1994. Impact on Schooling. Sports lift esteem in young athletes. Home, Internet 1.

Oldham, T.C. 1967. Life starts with you. Self-concept and Success, Harper and Row, 145-150.

Weiss, M. L. 1966. Sports Affect Youths` Social and Psychological Development. Sports lift Esteem in Young Athletes. Home. Internet, 1

Submitted 5/20/98 2:13:22 PM
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