Personality Vs Gender in Video Game Choices
Sponsored by Missouri Western State University Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-97-51113
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The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:
CONTRERAS, L. B. (2007). Personality Vs Gender in Video Game Preferences. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 10. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved July 26, 2017 .

Personality Vs Gender in Video Game Preferences
LARA B. CONTRERAS
-NONE- DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Sponsored by: Brian Cronk (cronk@missouriwestern.edu)
ABSTRACT
In this study 36 college students took mini-personality tests and also rated, by survey, four video game trailers. The personality tests and survey ratings of the video game trailers was to see if there was a correlation between extroversion and/or gender, and the types of video games they preferred. The study shows a correlation between gender and what type of video games the subjects chose but there was no significant correlation between personality type and the type of games the subjects chose.

INTRODUCTION
The purpose of this study was to see if there is any correlation between personality and what video games a person would like to play. The previous studies on video game preferences were primarily focused on males and addressing the choices to play violent video games rather than non-violent video games. One of the prior studies reviewed was a naturalistic study done by Kelly Alanis, Brad Jurica and Ogletree. The study titled Sex Differences Related to Video Arcade Game Behavior. In this study the researchers were motivated by their beliefs that Arcade Games may contribute to the already existing gender stereotypes. They were also concerned that males that chose to play arcade games predominantly chose to play violent games. So their hypothesis was that males will not only play games more often but they will also chose more violent games that females chose to play. In order to prove their hypothesis they decided to observe patrons at six arcades through a naturalistic approach. After categorizing the arcade games into violent or non violent categories they observed 183 subjects playing video arcade games. There were 31 females and 152 males that participated in the study. They observer would walk a lap around the arcade, just one lap to make sure observer did not record each participant’s results more than once. The results supported their hypothesis that more males play arcade games and that males also chose more violent games than females did, however, most of the males chose to play non-violent arcade games. The researchers suggest further, more in depth research on violent video game effects and how they can harm society as a whole. Another study by Brad Bushman and Jeroen Lemmens included a personality measurement in their measurements. The researcher were curious about whether it is males with more aggressive tendencies or ones that were less aggressive that chose violent games. They were also interested in whether higher educated boys or lower educated boys were any different. Their study consisted of 299 12-17 year olds from Belgium and the Netherlands. In both Belgium and Netherlands after grade school children are either placed in lower or higher forms of secondary education depending on their grade school performance. With that knowledge the researches chose 89-lower educated Dutch boys, 64-higher educated Dutch boys, 61 lower educated Belgian boys, and 85 higher educated Belgian to participate in their study. The researchers were interested in finding out who had more aggressive tendencies so they produced a survey to administer to the participants. The survey included a part to measure aggressive tendencies and empathy. They also included a section with questions to measure addictive tendencies. Lastly there was a section on video game preference, what type of games would the participants choose upon reading descriptions of each. Participants completed survey on aggression and addictive tendencies, and also rated games from descriptions on whether they wanted to play each of the 12 games described. Lastly, participants were asked to list favorite video games. The results show that as a whole the boys were more interested in playing violent video games rather than non-violent ones. The researcher also found that lower educated boys tended to not only wanted to play violent over non-violent games but tended to have more addictive traits. Belgian boys wanted to play more video games more than Dutch boys. Also the more empathic boys tended to want to play non-violent video games. After reviewing these studies I am still left with a question that is motivating me towards a study I want to do. The question is: Is there a correlation between personality and the type of games males and females are attracted to and play? With that question I conducted a study geared towards answering that question and thus it may enlighten us a bit more on whether it is gender that determines what type of video game a person chooses or whether it is personality that motivates subjects to be more attracted and play certain types of video games.


METHOD

PARTICIPANTS
The participants were 36 randomly chosen college students from General Psychology and upper level psychology courses. There were 21 female participants and 15 male participants. They were students in psychology 101 and also students from upper level psychology courses. They were all students at Missouri Western State University.

MATERIALS
The materials in this study were four game trailers and two surveys. The game trailers obtained from: http://h.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com, are three aggressive games, and one non-aggressive sports related game. The games that are deemed aggressive because of their rating are Stalker, from the XBOX 360, Def Jam Icon from XBOX 360 and Bullet Witch from XBOX 360. The non-aggressive video game is NBA Homecourt, also from XBOX 360. The subjects viewed the video game trailers on a Gateway Laptop, model number TA6. The first survey given was an Eysenck Minitest to measure introversion and extroversion. The second survey was simply a questionnaire about what the subjects thought of the trailers

PROCEDURE
The study was quite simple to conduct. The subjects were individually surveyed. First each subject took the Eysenck Minitest. After taking the minitest subjects were asked to view each trailer separately and after viewing the subjects answered the questions on the second questionnaire pertaining to that specific trailer. After obtaining this information from each subject they were thanked and debriefed and released.


RESULTS
A 2 (gender) x 2 (extroversion) between-subjects factorial ANOVA was calculated comparing male and female students on how they rated the video game trailer Bullet Witch. A significant main effect for gender was found (F(1,32) = 5.024, p < .05). In scoring this video game trailer the males ranked (m = 2.27, sd = 1.39) while the females ranked (m = 1.43, sd = .81). There was not a significant effect for personality (F(1,32) = .071, p > .05) and reflected (m = 1.78, sd = 1.15). The interaction effect was also not significant (F(1,32) = .030, p > .05). Table 3 shows the aforementioned effects for the video game trailer Bullet Witch. A 2 (gender) x 2 (extroversion) between-subjects factorial ANOVA was calculated comparing male and female students on how they rated the video game trailer Def Jam Icon. A significant main effect for gender was found (F(1,32) = 6.376, p < .05). In scoring this video game trailer the males ranked (m = 2.73, sd = 1.53) while the females ranked (m = 1.61, sd = .97). There was not a significant effect for personality (F(1,32) = 2.48, p > .05) and reflected (m = 2.08, sd = 1.39). The interaction effect was also not significant (F(1,32) = .194, p > .05). Table 2 shows the aforementioned effects described for the video game trailer Def Jam Icon. A 2 (gender) x 2 (extroversion) between-subjects factorial ANOVA was calculated comparing male and female students on how they rated the video game trailer Stalker. A significant main effect for gender was found (F(1,32) = 13.61, p < .05). In scoring this video game trailer the males ranked (m = 3.40, sd = 1.64) and the females ranked (m = 1.62, sd = 1.64). There was not a significant effect for personality (F(1,32) = .315, p > .05) and reflected (m = 2.36, sd = 1.66). The interaction effect was also not significant (F(1,32) = .205, p > .05). Table 3 shows the aforementioned effects for the video game trailer Stalker. A 2 (gender) x 2 (extroversion) between-subjects factorial ANOVA was calculated comparing male and female students on how they rated the video game trailer NBA Homecourt. There was not a significant main effect on how the subjects rated the video game trailer NBA Homecourt (F(1,32) = 2.02, p > .05). In scoring this video game trailer the males ranked (m = 2.33, sd = 1.63) and the females ranked (m = 2.81, sd = 1.50). There was also no significant effect for personality (F(1,32) = 1.11, p > .05) and reflected (m = 2.61, sd = 1.55). The interaction effect was also not significant (F(1,32) = 5.57, p > .05). Table 3 shows the aforementioned effects for the video game trailer NBA Homecourt.


DISCUSSION
The results of this study confirmed findings from previous studies and dispelled the notion that personality has a substantial bearing on what game a person likes or chooses to play. In my original statement of purpose I believed that personality, the tendency toward introversion or extroversion, would correlate with the type of games the subjects chose. Since previous studies showed results that proved that gender has some determining weight on what types of game subjects chose to play I decided to also see if there was a correlation between gender and the type of game subjects chose. The limitations to this study are generality, and materials. The subjects in my study are college students, therefore it is hard to generalize the results with the average population, it is also difficult to randomize. These students randomly chose to do my study but they are all Psychology students, and not part of a general population of students. Though the materials of the study were effective, I believe that video game trailers are much different than video games themselves and the results may have differed had there been video games for the subjects to experience before rating the video games. Also, a more in depth personality test could possibly provide support for my original statement. For future research the study should be replicated with actual video games, and a larger and more diverse group of subjects.


REFERENCES
Alanis, Kelly., Jurica, Brad., & Ogletree. (2002). Sex Differences Related to Video Arcade Game Behavior. Psi Chi Journal, 7, 145-148.Bushman, Brad J., & Lemmens, Jeroen S. (2006). The Appeal of Violent Video Games to Lower Educated Aggressive Adolescent Boys from Two Countries. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 9, 638-641.Eysenck, Hans. The Eysenck Minitest. Retrieved March 1, 2007. http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/eysenckminitest.html.


APPENDIX
Games trailers used:Bulletwitch: http://h.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/2/502840/169_bulletwitch_ot_x360_013107.mpgDefjamicon:http://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/1/501740/169_defjamicon_ot_mul_012307.mpgNBA Street http://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/5/504817/169_nbastreethc_x360_ot_021207m5-1.mpgStalkerhttp://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/1/501740/169_stalker_ot_mul_012307.mpg

First questionnaire: subject #______Gender M or F

Please answer the following questions by circling one of the numbers of 1-5, 5 being that you “Strongly agree and 1 being the least agreed to.

1. Do you have many different hobbies?Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 2. Do you stop to think things over before doing anything? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 3. Does your mood often go up and down? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 4. Are you a talkative person? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 5. Would being in debt worry you? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 6. Do you ever feel “just miserable” for no reason?Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 7. Do you lock up your house carefully at night? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 8. Are you rather lively? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 9. Would it upset you a lot to see a child or animal suffer? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 10. Do you often worry about things should have done or said? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 11. Can you usually let yourself go and enjoy yourself at a lively party? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 112. Are you an irritable person? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 13. Do you enjoy meeting new people?Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 14. Do you believe that insurance plans are a good idea? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1 15. Are you feelings easily hurt? Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

Second questionnaire:Subject # _____

Please rate games on a scale of 1-5, 1 being NOT AT ALL and 5 being VERY MUCH.

Game #1

I liked this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The graphics are realistic. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The game looks interesting. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I identify with the character in this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The main character is attractive. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I would play this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I like games like this. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

Game #2

I liked this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

The graphics are realistic. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The game looks interesting. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

I identify with the character in this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The main character is attractive. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I would play this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I like games like this. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

Game #3

I liked this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The graphics are realistic. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The game looks interesting. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I identify with the character in this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The main character is attractive. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

I would play this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I like games like this. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1

Game #4

I liked this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The graphics are realistic. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The game looks interesting. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I identify with the character in this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1The main character is attractive. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I would play this game. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree 5 4 3 2 1I like games like this. Strongly Agree Agree Neither Disagree Strongly Disagree

5 4 3 2 1


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Submitted 4/26/2007 12:45:39 PM
Last Edited 4/26/2007 1:13:57 PM
Converted to New Site 03/09/2009

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