Body Movement and Video Games
Sponsored by Missouri Western State University Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-97-51113
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The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:
STEWART, L. -. (2007). Body Movement and Video Games. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 10. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved August 24, 2017 .

Body Movement and Video Games
LARRY -. STEWART
MISSOURI WESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Sponsored by: Brian Cronk (cronk@missouriwestern.edu)
ABSTRACT
Previous research argues that regulation is needed for violent video games because there is little doubt that playing them affects behavior even more than watching violence on television does. (Snider, 2003) The effect of media violence on aggression could be used to reduce aggressive behavior and attitudes along with age and gender differences. Thirty-four research participants were observed watching either an aggressive or a non-aggressive violent video game. Body movements were observed that could indicate whether or not aggressive tendencies were present. The purpose of this study was to investigate if watching violent video games induces aggression. There was no significant difference in any of the behaviors as a result of video game trailers. This means there is no variation of aggressive versus non-aggressive behavior.

INTRODUCTION
Body Movement and Video Games

Previous research has focused on games and college students according to Bavelier and Green. (Snider, 2003) Video games have caused concern in our society regarding issues such as aggression and violence in some of these games being played or watched like Bulletwitch, Def Jam Icon, and Stalker are very interactive in the violence of killing the opponent and other games like NBA Homecourt Basketball have non-aggressive tendencies while playing and though these video games are stimulating, their purpose and intent are to involve you. Research participants were observed watching aggressive and non-aggressive violent video game trailers to show various body movements that could indicate whether or not aggressive tendencies were present. If we are nodding our heads up and down, this is viewed as agreement, but if we shake our heads from side to side this is disagreement. These differences are that playing violent video games involves identification with violent characters. Video games require a higher level of attention from the player and players focus their attention towards the video game or a failure of goals will occur. Anti-violence groups and child advocate groups argued that regulation is needed for violent video games because there is little doubt that playing them affects behavior even more than watching violence on television. (Snider, 2003)

EyeToy games replaced the hand held game pad with a video camera that translates a personís body movement. Your arms on the other hand will probably need a break in less than an hour, and that is because you use them along with the rest of your body to maneuver through the game. (Hamilton, 2004) In the study of videotapes and audiotapes and transcripts, these are being used because it would be very difficult for the researchers to capture the information through field notes for differentiating what was actually said or observed from the researcherís interpretations of what was said or observed. (Dever, 2000)The purpose of this study is to investigate watching violent video games induces aggression through observation.


INTRODUCTION
Body Movement and Video Games

Previous research has focused on games and college students according to Bavelier and Green. (Snider, 2003) Video games have caused concern in our society regarding issues such as aggression and violence in some of these games being played or watched like Bulletwitch, Def Jam Icon, and Stalker are very interactive in the violence of killing the opponent and other games like NBA Homecourt Basketball have non-aggressive tendencies while playing and though these video games are stimulating, their purpose and intent are to involve you. Research participants were observed watching aggressive and non-aggressive violent video game trailers to show various body movements that could indicate whether or not aggressive tendencies were present. If we are nodding our heads up and down, this is viewed as agreement, but if we shake our heads from side to side this is disagreement. These differences are that playing violent video games involves identification with violent characters. Video games require a higher level of attention from the player and players focus their attention towards the video game or a failure of goals will occur. Anti-violence groups and child advocate groups argued that regulation is needed for violent video games because there is little doubt that playing them affects behavior even more than watching violence on television. (Snider, 2003)

EyeToy games replaced the hand held game pad with a video camera that translates a personís body movement. Your arms on the other hand will probably need a break in less than an hour, and that is because you use them along with the rest of your body to maneuver through the game. (Hamilton, 2004) In the study of videotapes and audiotapes and transcripts, these are being used because it would be very difficult for the researchers to capture the information through field notes for differentiating what was actually said or observed from the researcherís interpretations of what was said or observed. (Dever, 2000)The purpose of this study is to investigate watching violent video games induces aggression through observation.


METHOD


METHOD

PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-four Missouri Western State University Psychology students were used in the experiment. Students that participated received extra credit for this experiment.

PARTICIPANTS
Thirty-four Missouri Western State University Psychology students were used in the experiment. Students that participated received extra credit for this experiment.

MATERIALS
In order to capture the participantís body movements, recording equipment consisted of a Panasonic thirteen inch television monitor, Panasonic video cassette recorder, and a Gateway notebook laptop computer TA 6 to record movement. Video game movie trailers used included Bulletwitch, 2007, Def Jam Icon, 2006, Stalker, 2007, and EAS NBA Homecourt Basketball, 2007. The manufacturers for each game were provided from Cavia, X-Box 360 companies.

MATERIALS
In order to capture the participantís body movements, recording equipment consisted of a Panasonic thirteen inch television monitor, Panasonic video cassette recorder, and a Gateway notebook laptop computer TA 6 to record movement. Video game movie trailers used included Bulletwitch, 2007, Def Jam Icon, 2006, Stalker, 2007, and EAS NBA Homecourt Basketball, 2007. The manufacturers for each game were provided from Cavia, X-Box 360 companies.

PROCEDURE
Students were brought into the Psychology lab room and seated at a round table to view four video game clips that were randomly sorted. Students were observed and recorded through a one way mirror to capture various body movements as follows-eyes open wide, arm movement over the head, arm movement or crossed, body leaning forward- approval, body leaning backward-disapproval, smiling and head movement- nodding. The body movements were rated on a 0-10 scale and statistical analysis were tests of within-subjects effects of one-way repeated measures ANOVA probability level .05 was used for each body movement.

PROCEDURE
Students were brought into the Psychology lab room and seated at a round table to view four video game clips that were randomly sorted. Students were observed and recorded through a one way mirror to capture various body movements as follows-eyes open wide, arm movement over the head, arm movement or crossed, body leaning forward- approval, body leaning backward-disapproval, smiling and head movement- nodding. The body movements were rated on a 0-10 scale and statistical analysis were tests of within-subjects effects of one-way repeated measures ANOVA probability level .05 was used for each body movement.


RESULTS
Tests of within-subjects effects of one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze each body movement. The study showed various body movements did not induce aggressive behavior through video observation. For the dependent variables, four video games consisting of three aggressive and one non-aggressive movie trailers were shown and after placing each video game trailer into categories and the results were as follows, eyes open wide, F (3, 99) =.108, p> .05, arm movement over the head, F (3, 99) =.761, p> .05, arm movement or crossed, F (3, 99) =.804, p> .05, body leaning forward- approval, F (3, 99) = .338, p> .05, body leaning backward-disapproval, F (3, 99)=..447, p> .05, smiling, F (3, 99) =.160, p> .05, and head movement- nodding, F (3, 99) =.095, p> .05. There were no significant differences between the four games for any of the seven measures of aggressive behavior as a result of the video game trailers that were observed. (Table 1)


RESULTS
Tests of within-subjects effects of one-way repeated measures ANOVA were used to analyze each body movement. The study showed various body movements did not induce aggressive behavior through video observation. For the dependent variables, four video games consisting of three aggressive and one non-aggressive movie trailers were shown and after placing each video game trailer into categories and the results were as follows, eyes open wide, F (3, 99) =.108, p> .05, arm movement over the head, F (3, 99) =.761, p> .05, arm movement or crossed, F (3, 99) =.804, p> .05, body leaning forward- approval, F (3, 99) = .338, p> .05, body leaning backward-disapproval, F (3, 99)=..447, p> .05, smiling, F (3, 99) =.160, p> .05, and head movement- nodding, F (3, 99) =.095, p> .05. There were no significant differences between the four games for any of the seven measures of aggressive behavior as a result of the video game trailers that were observed. (Table 1)


DISCUSSION
The study indicated that students who watched and played video games did not exhibit any behavioral patterns that induced aggression. Previous studies have stated that students who played various video games made them less emotionally reactive to real-life violence. Results from the present study confirmed that both aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors did not show through various body movements, therefore, no behavioral patterns lead to aggression and violence. Limitations of the present study should be acknowledged especially to the extent that it may suggest implications for further research. A potential problem is that there were many body movement types that could be observed to obtain a more definitive way to monitor studentís interaction with aggressive and non-aggressive video games. In future research, it would be helpful to conduct more extensive testing to ensure that various body movements might exhibit more of an aggressive or non-aggressive behavior pattern. Though the results were interesting, are limited in the sense that only college students were used. Every company that manufactures a video game should develop a video game room within their organization and bring in people of all ages to allow them to play and watch games and monitor whether or not a potential body movement or emotion might become construed as an aggression which could lead to violence in our society.


DISCUSSION
The study indicated that students who watched and played video games did not exhibit any behavioral patterns that induced aggression. Previous studies have stated that students who played various video games made them less emotionally reactive to real-life violence. Results from the present study confirmed that both aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors did not show through various body movements, therefore, no behavioral patterns lead to aggression and violence. Limitations of the present study should be acknowledged especially to the extent that it may suggest implications for further research. A potential problem is that there were many body movement types that could be observed to obtain a more definitive way to monitor studentís interaction with aggressive and non-aggressive video games. In future research, it would be helpful to conduct more extensive testing to ensure that various body movements might exhibit more of an aggressive or non-aggressive behavior pattern. Though the results were interesting, are limited in the sense that only college students were used. Every company that manufactures a video game should develop a video game room within their organization and bring in people of all ages to allow them to play and watch games and monitor whether or not a potential body movement or emotion might become construed as an aggression which could lead to violence in our society.


REFERENCES
Devers, K. J. & Frankel, R. M. (2000) Study design in qualitative research-2: Sampling and data collection strategies [Electronic Version] Education for Health, 13, 263-271.Hamilton, A. (2004) Beyond the thumb. Time, 164,115.Jurica, B. & Alanis, K. & Ogletree, S. (2002) Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research, 7, 145-148.


REFERENCES
Devers, K. J. & Frankel, R. M. (2000) Study design in qualitative research-2: Sampling and data collection strategies [Electronic Version] Education for Health, 13, 263-271.Hamilton, A. (2004) Beyond the thumb. Time, 164,115.Jurica, B. & Alanis, K. & Ogletree, S. (2002) Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research, 7, 145-148.


APPENDIX
Games trailers used:Bulletwitch: http://h.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/2/502840/169_bulletwitch_ot_x360_013107.mpgDefjamicon:http://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/1/501740/169_defjamicon_ot_mul_012307.mpgNBA Street:http://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/5/504817/169_nbastreethc_x360_ot_021207m5-1.mpgStalker:http://l.yimg.com/download2.games.yahoo.com/games/buzz2/content/p/1/501740/169_stalker_ot_mul_012307.mpg


TABLE 1
DF 	F	Sig.	Bulletwitch	Def Jam Icon	Stalker 	Basketball

Eyes open wide 3, 99 .108 .955 3.882 3.941 3.882 3.824Arms over head 3, 99 .761 .519 .412 .176 .176 .118Arms crossed 3, 99 .804 .495 .412 .412 .529 .176 Forward lean 3, 99 .338 .795 3.559 3.529 3.765 3.706Backward lean 3, 99 .447 .720 .118 .294 .235 .176 Smile 3, 99 .160 .923 .647 .588 .765 .824 Nodding 3, 99 .095 .962 .412 .353 .471 .529

Submitted 4/26/2007 12:45:39 PM
Last Edited 4/26/2007 1:04:58 PM
Converted to New Site 03/09/2009

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