INTRODUCTION Intelligence is the capacity to learn and adapt ( Kassin, 1991). The intelligence quotient, or IQ, is a person’s performance relative to that person’s same aged peers. Alfred Binet and Theophile Simon compiled the first IQ test in 1905. Binet intended the test to identify children needing special assistance in their education. Today, for the population, the average intelligence is measured as an IQ of 100, with 95% of the population falling between an IQ score of 70 and an IQ of 130 ( Plotnik, 1999). An IQ over 130 is considered superior and an IQ of 145 is considered gifted. Only about two percent of the population has an IQ of 130 or better. Only one person in a 1,000,000 is considered profoundly gifted, which is having an IQ of 180 and over. An IQ score of 70 to 75 is considered borderline mental retardation. Only about two percent of the population has an IQ score below 70. An IQ score of 50 is considered mild to moderate retardation and an IQ of 30 is considered sever retardation. In a similar way of thinking to Binet, IQ has been attempted to be used as an indicator for achievement. In a study of children’s achievement, researchers studied the mothers and the quality of the home environment they provided (Baharudin & Luster, 1998). It was found that children with higher levels of achievement had mothers with higher levels of self-esteem and intelligence. Researchers also found that the mothers with higher intelligence tended to have more education, fewer children, and were older when their first child was born.Teachers’ expectations also seem to have an impact on IQ. Teachers were given scores of elementary school students on a “test for intellectual blooming” (Rosenthal & Jacobson, 1966). The children were randomly assigned to either the control group or the experimental group. The experimental group was given higher scores on the test, which indicates they had a high potential for greater intellectual gains. The students were given IQ tests before and after the study. Researchers found that the experimental group had a greater gain in IQ scores over the course of the study. This indicates that the teachers’ perception of the students’ intelligence somehow affected the learning process. Over the years self-esteem has been the topic of much debate. Ranging from how it is developed to the effects it has on one’s personality. Self-esteem, according to John W Santrock (1997) is the “evaluative and affective dimension of self concept”. Self-esteem is also referred to as self-worth or self-image. Many researchers believe that self-esteem or lack there of is shaped by experiences within our childhood (Wigfield & Eccles,1994). Self-esteem may be developed during childhood, but it affects how we see others and ourselves the rest of our life. There are various factors that affect self-esteem such as sex, racism and social class.In the Francis and Jones (1996) study they examined the relationship between social class and self-esteem. Their study consisted of 711 sixteen-year-olds in England. The subject’s social class was determined with the help of the office of population, censuses and surveys based on the income of their parents. In this study there were three measures of self-esteem used. The first measure was the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The second measure of self-esteem was the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The third measure was the Lipsitt Self-Concept Scale. What the researchers found was that social class and self-esteem did correlate depending on which measure was used. The Coopersmith measure showed a strong correlation between social class and self-esteem. The Rosenberg measure showed a small correlation between the two. In contrast, the Lipsitt showed no correlation between social class and self-esteem. The researchers concluded that the differences between the results of the self-esteem measures could have been affected by numerous factors, such as the age of the subjects and the cultural context in which the research was performed.An area of interest to some researchers is the self-esteem differences between races. Martinez and Dukes (1991) study examined how racism affects self-esteem in of school age children. They found that racism had a significant correlation with self-esteem depending on the race of the individual. Minorities were more likely to be affected by racism than whites.Many have researched the self-esteem differences between males and females. Martinez and Dukes (1991) found the males were more likely to score higher on a self-esteem measure than females. Not only did they look at the sex of each subject but they also looked at the race. By doing this they found that white males scored higher than any other group in self-esteem. The purpose of this study is to investigate if a correlation exists between an individual’s perception of his or her own intelligence, based on an IQ score, and his or her self-esteem.
There were 34 participants in this study. The participants were enrolled in one of Dr. James Huntermark’s general psychology classes at Missouri Western State College. Those who chose to participate were given extra credit in Dr. Huntermark’s class.
The materials required to do this experiment are a pen and pencil bogus IQ test (see Appendix A) and a 30-item pen and pencil self-esteem test, the Self-Esteem Inventory written by Jerabek (see Appendix B).
The participants were informed that they were participating in two separate studies. Participants were informed they were participating in one study on the average IQ of Missouri Western State College students and the second on self-esteem levels of college students. Participants were given what is considered average, high, and low scores on the IQ test and what each score would indicate. The participants first filled out basic demographic information including sex, age, last five digits of their social security numbers and their predicted IQ. The last five digits of the social security numbers were used only for the purpose of keeping track of the two separate Self-Esteem Inventory scores and to give the results back to the correct person. The participants then filled out the Self-Esteem Inventory followed by the bogus IQ test. After surveys were collected, the participants’ information from the Self-Esteem Inventory was recorded. Then, the participants were randomly divided into two groups. One group received an IQ score that was 12 points higher than their predicted IQ score. The second group received an IQ score that was 12 points less than their predicted IQ scores. After a week, the participants received their demographic page with the results of their IQ tests written at the top of the page. They were then asked to re-take the Self-Esteem Inventory. After the surveys were collected, participants were informed of the true purpose of this study, which was to see if their perceived IQ affected their self-esteem, and they were also informed that the IQ test was not a real IQ test.
RESULTS An individual samples t test was calculated comparing the mean score of change between the two Self-Esteem Inventory tests for subjects in the add group to the mean score of change for the subjects in the subtract group. No significant difference was found ( t(2) = .781, p > .05). The mean change for the add group (m = -.7778, sd = 10.5583) was not significantly different from the mean of the subtract group ( m = -.5000, sd = 8.7712).
DISCUSSION The original hypothesis of this study was that a person’s perceived IQ would affect their self-esteem. Results showed no significance for the individual samples t test. It was found that the add group did have a higher mean score (m = 124.8333, sd = 3.0830) compared to the subtract group ( m = 116.1875, sd = 3.6288). This difference between the groups may have affected the results. It is also possible that with a larger sample size that the results might be significant. To repeat this study, it would be beneficial to increase the sample size to at least 30 participants per group. With a larger sample size researchers can control for extreme scores. Another possible change would be how participants are gotten. By using a class it limits the participants to a very select group of individuals in age and possibly self-esteem. Future research might be directed at comparing the self-esteem of college students to older individuals.
REFERENCES Baharudin, R.; & Luster, T. ( 1998). Factors related to the quality of the home environment and children’s achievement. Journal of Family Issues, 19, 375-404. Francis, L. J.; & Jones, S. H. ( 1996). Social class and self-esteem. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 405. Martinez, R.; & Dukes, R. L. ( 1991). Ethnic and gender differences in self-esteem. Youth & Society, 22, 318.Plotnik, R. ( 1999). Introduction to Psychology ( 5th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.Rosenthal, R.; & Jacobson, L. ( 1966). Teachers’ expectancies determinants of pupils IQ gains. Psychological Reports, 19, 115-118.Santrock, J. W. ( 1994). Psychology ( 5th ed.). Chicago: Brown and Benchmark Publishers. Wigfield, A.: & Eccles, J. S. ( 1994). Children’s competence beliefs, achievement, values, and general self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 107-139.
APPENDIX A The Almond-Cole IQ Assesment Test
For each question, fill in the circle next to the answer that is best.
1. One half of one and a half pounds is eighteen ounces. True : False 2. The following words are the opposites of words that begin with the letter C: open, hot, convex, expand, courage. True : False3. If you write the numbers 1 through 25 in a row, any two numbers that are next to each other add up to a number that is odd. True : False4. The number 62 is the next logical number in the following sequence of numbers: 2, 6, 14, 30. True : False5. In the following series, what comes next? 1, 3, 5, 7, .. 9 10 11 136. In the following series, what comes next? 1, A, 9, I, 17, .. Q Z E U7. In the following series, what comes next? 1, 8, 27, 64, .. 125 35 128 256
8. The sum of the whole numbers between 1 and 100 is: 101 5050 1000 1009. In the following series, which letter comes next? A, C, E, G, .. I K M H10. Which does not belong? apple, orange, car, grape grape apple car orange11. If every day is a Sunday, and there is no work on Sundays: Everyone goes to church no one works Everyone works everyday Tomorrow is Saturday12. If d=r*t then: t=d-r d=t\r r=d\t z=d(r\t)13. If a car takes 10 minutes to travel 60 km, at the same rate it would take ... to travel 1800 km. 300 hours 4 hours 50 minutes 300 minutes14. Which of the following is closest in meaning to: dipsomaniac sot roger hydrophobic repose15. Which of the following is closest in meaning to: rhetorician tautology flummox orator pandemic
APPENDIX B Self-Esteem InventoryFor each statement, indicate how frequently it applies to you by circling the appropriate response.
1. In social situations, I have something interesting to say.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time2. Most people around me seem to be better off than I am.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 3. I like being myself and accept myself the way I am. Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 4. I mess up everything I touch.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 5. When I see a good opportunity, I recognize it and seize it.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 6. People respect and like only those who are good looking, smart, witty, talented or rich.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 7. To me, success is not imperative. The important thing is to try and do my best.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 8. I deserve to be loved and respected.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 9. Unlike others, I really have to go out of my way to make and keep a friend.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree
10. If someone ever falls in love with me, I better do my best to prove worthy, because it may well never happen to me again. Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 11. Being myself is a guarantee that people will dislike me.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 12. I am not sure I have done a good job unless someone else points it out.
Almost never true Rarely true Sometimes true Quite often true Most of the time true 13. I am afraid of being rejected by my friends.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 14. If I don`t do as well as others, it means that I am an inferior person.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 15. I could disappear from the surface of the earth, and nobody would notice.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 16. A partial failure is as bad as a complete failure.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 17. In case of need, I know people who care enough about me to offer their help.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Agree Strongly agree 18. I feel worthless and futile.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 19. I feel I can make mistakes without losing the love or respect of others.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 20. I let those who care about me down.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time
21. If I can`t do something well, there is no point in doing it at all.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 22. I will never amount to anything significant.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 23. I don`t need other people`s approval in order to be happy and satisfied with myself.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 24. I have what it takes to socialize with other people.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Agree Strongly agree 25. I think I am a failure.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 26. Someone that stands up to me or disagrees with me may still very well like and respect me.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat disagree Agree Strongly agree 27. By ignoring a problem, you can make it go away.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 28. I see myself as someone special and worthy of other people`s attention and affection.
Almost never Rarely Sometimes Quite often Most of the time 29. How I feel about myself is more important than others` opinions of me.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree 30. I will never be as capable as I should be.
Strongly disagree Disagree Somewhat agree Agree Strongly agree