Does Latte Art Make a Differnce?
Sponsored by Missouri Western State University Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-97-51113
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The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:
WILEY, S. M. (2005). Does Latte Art Make a Differnce?. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 8. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved May 26, 2017 .

Does Latte Art Make a Differnce?
STEPHANIE M. WILEY
MISSOURI WESTERN STATE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Sponsored by: Brian Cronk (cronk@missouriwestern.edu)
ABSTRACT
If there is latte art on a beverage do people perceive that they will taste better than if it does not have latte art on it? This is the question that I asked at the beginning of the semester. Forty-three people were handed surveys at Espresso dell’Anatra in Kansas City, Missouri. The surveys asked questions about the type of service they received, their beverage quality, and there wait time. Their seemed to be no significant difference across the board, it does not make a difference according to the customers of Espresso dell’Anatra if their beverages have latte art or not, to them they all taste good no matter what.

INTRODUCTION
Does Latte Art Make a Difference? Feast first with the eyes and then with the mouth, this is a saying that is said in many cultures, meaning that when you look at your food you are first feasting with your eyes perceiving how good it will taste before you actually taste what is places in front of you. This saying makes me think that if we first feast with our eyes then if what we taste looks good it is going to taste good. So the better it looks the better it will taste. Once I started thinking about this topic I went to the next best source a chef. The chef that I spoke with, Jeremiah Price, had this to say, Well basically...it’s the same with food. Latte like food in my opinion is something that someone is ingesting into their body...which I think makes it more of an intimate thing and something personal as oppose to paintings or movies. But it’s the basic idea in culinary arts is “feast with the eyes first and then the mouth.” People love to use all their senses when it comes to an experience and cooking or making drinks such as alcohol beverages it’s all the same with food you use all five senses to bring the experience to a personal level and in my opinion more fulfilling and more stimulating. Presentation of your skill visual is probably the first sense that the customer uses and then the aroma hits which brings it to more of an emotional level that can sometimes bring back pleasant memories, and then comes taste and then the texture of whatever is begin consumed if any and then final the sound of which is makes in the whole process if any. It is an art...and basically like all art the more you touch and reach all the senses the better. And with latte art I think it also displays a level of skill not only with the preparation of the drink and how it taste but it makes the person feel more appreciative of coffee making in general...which in the corporate world is become more scarce because of the whole cookie cutter approach to it. And with that...well when I get a drink like that and not even expect it..I love it (Personal Interview). When I was done talking to Jeremiah I felt good about my project and decided it was time to go out and look for evidence that supported my idea that if latte art is on a beverage people will perceive that their beverage taste better than a latte without latte art. There was a slight problem it is hard to find evidence on this topic, but what I did find was mostly done by Barbara Rolls (1982, 1988, 1990). She has done most of the leading work on taste and perception. Barbara Rolls has done many studies pertaining to this subject. According to Rolls several studies have shown that sensory stimulation is important, when arguing about the pleasantness of food. Rolls, has also done studies where participants were asked before eating a food to rate their food on a visual analog scale. The subjects that rated the visual pleasantness high also rated the pleasantness of the taste high. It is thought that the sensory properties of foods could also contribute to the sensory-specific component of satiety and enhance how much one eats. The purpose of this study is to find out if latte art on a beverage is perceived to taste better than a beverage without latte art? Do people really feast with their eyes first, if they do then one would think that the beverages with latte art would seem to taste better than ones that do not have latte art on then even thought they contain the same thing.


METHOD

PARTICIPANTS
Forty- three customers from Espresso dell’Anatra that ordered beverages that have the option of having latte art filled out surveys. Espresso dell’Anatra is located in Kansas City, Missouri.

MATERIALS
The customers were given a 7 question survey that asks about service and beverage quality. The customers also had to have their beverage which consists of espresso and foamed milk while filling out the survey. They were allowed a writing utensil to fill out the survey.

PROCEDURE
The customers came up to the counter to order. If they ordered a drink that could have latte art on it they were asked if they would fill out a survey. If they agreed to fill out the survey they were handed the survey as they were handed their drink. The color of the survey corresponds with latte art or no latte art. If the customer has latte art they are handed the appropriate survey and if they do not have latte art then they are handed a different color than if latte art appeared on the drink.


RESULTS
An independent-samples t test was calculated comparing customers who received latte art and those who did not and how frequently each customer made a purchase at Espresso dell’Anatra. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .827, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte art (m = 2.5652, sd = 1.30823) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte art (m = 2.6522, sd = 1.36877). An independent- samples t test was calculated comparing customers who received latte art and those who did not and how satisfied they were with the service they received at Espresso dell’Anatra. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .323, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte art (m = 1.0000, no variability) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte art (m = 1.0435, sd = .20581). An independent-samples t test was calculated comparing customers who received latte are and those who did not and how satisfied they were with there beverage on there current trip to Espresso dell’Anatra. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .155, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte art (m = 1.0000, sd = no variability) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte are (m = 1.0870, sd = .28810). An independent-sample t test was calculated comparing customers who received latte art and those who did not and how likely they were to visit Espresso dell’Anatra in the next week. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .076, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte art (m = 1.0000, sd = no variability) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte art (m = 1.1304, sd = .34435). An independent-samples t test was calculated comparing customers who received latte art and those who did not and how likely there are to recommend Espresso dell’Anatra in the next week. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .188, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte art (m = 1.0435, sd = .20851) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte art (m = 1.2609, sd = .75181). An independent-sample t test was calculated comparing customer who received latte art and those who did not and how happy they were with there wait at Espresso dell’Anatra. No significant difference was found (t(44) = .657, p > .05). The mean of the customers who did not receive latte are (m = 1.0870, sd = .41703) was not significantly different from the customers who did receive latte art (m = 1.0435, sd = .20851).


DISCUSSION
The results of this study rejected my initial hypothesis, there was no significance across the board. A problem that arose with this study was the ceiling effect. The quality of the beverages according to the data collected can not get any better, they have reached top quality. On a good note this means that the customers must be happy with their beverages. I believe that if this study was done at a café that is newly established one might get different results than I did at a well established café. This is because at a well established café that does latte art most of the customers are used to latte art and they are educated on what latte art is, where as at a newly established café latte art will be a new experience for the majority of the customers and they might think differently about a beverage with latte art versus a beverage without latte art. If further studies are done they should be done at newly established cafes that do or are thinking about doing latte art. It would be interesting to see if it is worth spending the money on training the baristas to do latte art.


REFERENCES
Rolls, B. J., & Fedoroff, I. C., Guthrie, J. F., Laster, L. J. (1990). Effects of temperature and mode of presentation of juice on hunger, thirst and food intake in humans. Appetite, 15, 199-208.Rolls, B. J., & Hetherington, M., & Burlry, V. (1988). Sensory stimulation and energy density in the development of satiety. Physiology & Behavior, 44, 727-733.Rolls, B. J., & Rowe, E. A., Rolls, E. T. (1982). How sensory properties of foods affect human feeding behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 29, 409-417.


Appendix

Submitted 12/8/2005 7:31:29 PM
Last Edited 12/8/2005 7:42:38 PM
Converted to New Site 03/09/2009

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